Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/ Journal of Literature, Culture and the Environment Universidad de Alcalá en-US Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2171-9594 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br>a) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal (CC BY-NC for articles and CC BY-NC-ND for creative work, unless author requests otherwise.</p> <p>b) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>c) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Anniversary Editorial https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4031 <p>Editorial.</p> Carmen Flys Junquera Axel H. Goodbody Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-10 2020-10-10 11 2 i iii 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.4031 Foreword by EASLCE President https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4052 <p>Foreword by EASLCE President.</p> Uwe Küchler Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 11 2 iv iv 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.4052 Foreword by the Director of the Instituto Franklin/University of Alcalá https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4037 <p>Foreword.</p> Francisco Sáez de Adana Herrero Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-13 2020-10-13 11 2 v v 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.4037 Ten Years of Ecozon@: Reflections from the First Managing Editors https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4016 <p>Ten Years of <em>Ecozon@</em>: Reflections from the First Managing Editors</p> Margarita Carretero González Imelda Martín Junquera Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-07 2020-10-07 11 2 vi viii 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.4016 Introduction https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4027 <p>Introduction.</p> Axel H. Goodbody Carmen Flys Junquera Serpil Oppermann Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-10 2020-10-10 11 2 1 7 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.4027 Climate Change in Literature, Television and Film from Norway https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3468 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Environmental and climatic change has become a frequent motif in contemporary Norwegian literature, television and film, and Norway has the worldwide first organization of writers committed to climate action (The Norwegian Writers’ Climate Campaign, founded in 2013). In this article, we argue that Norwegian climate change fiction and related works draw on elements that relate to specific national and/or Nordic cultural, societal and historical aspects, and that these elements give these works their distinct identity. We focus on four such aspects: (1) references to Norwegian petroculture (since the Norwegian economy is largely based on the export of fossil fuels); (2) an (imagined) intimate connection between Norwegianness and nature, and thus of what often is seen as a typical element of Norwegian national identity; (3) notions of “Nordicity”, and (4) an atmosphere of gloom and melancholia in many of the works (which often has been ascribed to Nordic landscapes, and usually is characteristic for the genre of Nordic noir).</p> Sissel Furuseth Anne Gjelsvik Ahmet Gürata Reinhard Hennig Julia Leyda Katie Ritson Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-07 2020-10-07 11 2 8 16 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3468 Voulay-vous éc(h)opoétizay aveck moy ? https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3502 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The recent French surge of interest in ecocriticism has sparked interesting debates about whether there might be a French specificity in the field. Foregrounding the use of the term “ecopoétique,” some have argued that Francophone academics focus less on the thematic and ideological aspects of environmental literature than Anglophone scholars do, to better scrutinize the poetic fabric of the text. Relying on my own liminal experience as an academic with a bicultural background, trained in English studies mostly in France but with readings predominantly form the English-speaking world, I would like to propose a piece of semi-narrative writing, drawing connections between various cultural threads that I have learned to braid. I aim to tease out some of the influences that have come together to determine my cross-cultural practice of research in ecopoetics and ecofeminism–another ecocritical movement that was largely ignored in France until just recently and is now blooming. Furthermore, this essay delineates some of the leading initiatives and trends that have emerged in the past few years, bringing together various Francophone scholars and networks that have greatly contributed to the blossoming of ecocriticism in French academia. Finally, I cast light on some of the work carried out by the University of Perpignan Ecopoetics workshop. I draw out the guiding principles and perspectives that we believe can bring about innovative developments in the field.</p> Bénédicte Meillon Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 11 2 17 25 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3502 Itinerant Ecocriticism, Southern Thought, and Italian Cinema on Foot https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3501 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This short essay explores an impulse guiding Italian ecocriticism, and also a recurrent trend in Italian cinema: that of thinking on foot. Drawing on the work of sociologist and philosopher Franco Cassano, I consider why contemporary philosophers seek to understand Italy at a pace that works strategically (sometimes defiantly) against petroleum-fueled speed.&nbsp; Brief examples from three recent Italian films that proceed on foot (<em>Basilicata Coast to Coast </em>[2010], <em>La lunga strada gialla </em>[2016]<em>, </em>and <em>Il cammino dell’Appia antica </em>[2016]) attempt to reanimate southern Italian landscapes as “vehicles of identity, solidarity, and development” (Cassano xxxvi). Each film represents a socio-political project enabled by its walking pace; each, in turn, has the potential to unveil how these projects depend on the naturalcultural health of the landscapes being traversed. Against the “slow violence” being perpetrated on Italian landscapes—a slow violence of toxic contamination at the hand of ecomafias, of the cementification of agricultural lands and delicate coasts—and against the speed of turbocapitalism, thinking on foot enables modes of ethics and aesthetics simultaneously attuned to historical depth and ecological crisis. In this view, Italy is no longer a “<em>bel paese</em>,” but rather an ecocultural landscape in which the seeds for meaningful change are deeply embedded.</p> Elena Past Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 11 2 26 33 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3501 Ecocriticism in Poland: Then and Now https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3553 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of this paper is to present a synoptic picture of the development and current state of ecocriticism in Poland. Understood in the generic sense of the study of literature and environment, ecocriticism had begun in Poland already in 1970s and has since then generated its own original tradition. Understood in the specific historical sense of a field devoted to the study of literature and environment that was consolidated in the 1990s in the USA and the UK and has then expanded both in disciplinary and national terms, ecocriticism was imported to Poland only in the beginning of the 21st century, but has managed do generate its own tradition as well. For a while, both these currents of Polish ecocriticism had run in parallel to one another, but have recently merged, stimulating new exciting developments. The paper will delineate these historical trajectories and recent developments alike. And it will also show how today’s Polish ecocriticism contributes to ecocriticism globally, not only by offering its own culturally unique perspective and archives, but also by proposing new methodologies, including so-called empirical ecocriticism, an emerging field that originates in part from Poland.</p> Wojciech Małecki Jarosław Woźniak Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 11 2 34 41 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3553 Among Forests, Wetlands and Animals: Ecocriticism in the Baltics https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3498 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania often tend to be grouped together under the label of ’the Baltic countries’, yet they constitute a region characterised by a diversity which also manifests itself in the field of academic research. Still, it may be possible to detect some common elements in the ecocriticism-related activities that have been taking place in these states during the past couple of decades. The article maps the salient tendencies in the environmental humanities (including ecocriticism) of the region that recently gained an institutionalised platform in the form of the Baltic Conferences on the Environmental Humanities and Social Sciences (BALTEHUMS) that were started in 2018. A survey is given of the three countries’ most significant events and publications that have boasted an ecocritical component, ecocriticism’s institutional representation and inclusion of ecocritical issues in university syllabuses and theory textbooks, as well as some pertinent topics and sub-fields on which the scholars in these countries are currently working. Among these, various aspects of the connections of literature and the ecosystems of the forest (trees) and the mire can be noticed; while also animal studies, literary urban studies, bio- and ecosemiotics and environmental history appear to have entered a fruitful dialogue with ecocritical scholarship currently conducted in the Baltics.</p> Kadri Tüür Ene-Reet Soovik Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 11 2 42 51 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3498 Ecocriticism in Turkey https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3489 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Ecocriticism has gained visibility in Turkish academia in the early 2000s. This essay offers a brief analysis of the status of the field in Turkey and sheds light on the growing interest in ecology in both academic and non-academic circles. I first overview the academic conventions and publications that provided the initial momentum for the birth of Turkish ecocriticism. I examine past and current trends in ecocritical studies by surveying the latest academic publications, literary works and traditions that lend themselves to ecocritical analyses, and specific ecological questions pertinent to Turkey’s geography. I then address future directions for research in the field and investigate the expanding interest in ecology across different disciplines such as film, visual arts and media. I conclude the essay by highlighting the interdisciplinary platforms that bring together researchers and practitioners to enable new forms of environmental criticism and activism at a time of immense neoliberal growth.</p> Meliz Ergin Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-16 2020-09-16 11 2 52 58 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3489 Border Country: Postcolonial Ecocriticism in Ireland https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3504 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The spatial turn in Ireland has emerged from a focus on postcolonial discourse, a historical model that critiques the inequalities inherent in Irish modernity. A focus on place as a means of establishing identity, particularly within the context of colonial and imperialist narratives, led to a dynamic discourse on literary representations of the environment in Irish studies depicting fraught relationships between land and scarcity. And yet, there was resistance to engaging with ecocriticism on a systematic level, as Eóin Flannery observes, “the field of Irish cultural studies has yet to exploit fully the critical and analytical resources of ecological criticism” (2012: 6). Previously, the discourse of space and place has been in the service of Irish cultural studies: how has our relationship with place made Ireland what it is today? One of the interesting aspects of the intervention of ecocriticism in the field of Irish studies is how much of ecocriticism is still in the trawl of the cultural implications for the environment. This article will examine the emergence of Irish studies and ecocritical discourse in recent years and explore the dynamic between post-colonialism and environmental criticism with respect to the Irish canon.</p> Lisa FitzGerald Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-02 2020-10-02 11 2 59 65 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3504 Out of Africa: Ecocriticism beyond Environmental Justice https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3495 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This essay is an attempt to present a broader view of ecocriticism in Africa. Ecocriticism, in theory and practice, appears to have limited itself to the notion of environmental justice, with the aim of raising consciousness against institutional powers behind ecological crises. The reason for this is not far-fetched. International scholarship on African ecocriticism tends to focus on the activism of the Kenyan Wangari Mathai and the Nigerian Ken Saro-Wiwa; and on the fiction of a few writers concerned with environmentalism and conservation. This <em>kind</em> of ecocriticism, under the rubric of postcolonialism, is, in my view, narrow, too human-centred, and should, in fact, be decentred for an all-inclusive mapping of African ecocriticism. I attempt to shift this paradigm by foregrounding a narrative that stages the role and agency of nonhuman and spiritual materiality in practices that demonstrate nature-human relations since the pre-colonial period. I argue that for a proper delineation of the theory and practice of ecocriticism in Africa, attention should be paid to literary and cultural artefacts that depict Africa’s natural world in which humans sometimes find themselves helpless under the agency of other-than-human beings, with whom they negotiate the right path for the society. I conclude by making the point that a recognition of this natural world, and humans’ right place in it, is crucial to any ecocritical project that imagines an alternative to the present human-centred system. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: African ecocriticism, natural worlds, spiritual materiality, nonhuman agency</p> Sule Emmanuel Egya Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 11 2 66 73 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3495 The Identity of Hispanic Literatures: One Breath, a Million Words https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3496 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Nothing can stop the tides of innovation in art: it is this idea that a captive, dirty, weak, and hungry Don Quixote embraced to affirm himself as the heroic referent for the emerging Romance literatures. Indeed, this adaptability has been the secret of his longevity in the Western canon. Like Don Quixote, Hispanic literatures cannot build their identity on a pristine, metropolitan, and uniform Spanish language elevated by its exclusivity. If literary Hispanism is to be alive, it needs to evolve into a complex cultural construction that binds together the oral and literat­e languages of America and Spain and takes into account transatlantic flows and contradictions. Breathing, a common feature of both literary patterns and a rhythm of nature, will serve as the much-needed metaphor to bridge Latin American oral cultures, which have found permanence and expression in written texts, with literate cultures, including even the most urban, digital, and technologically advanced from Mexico, Chile or Spain. ­</p> José Manuel Marrero Henríquez Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 11 2 74 81 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3496 Naming the Unknown, Witnessing the Unseen: Mediterranean Ecocriticism and Modes of Representing Migrant Others https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3559 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In continuity with the theoretical explorations of Mediterranean Ecocriticism, this essay deals with modes of representation of "migrant others." Often de-personified and reduced to statistical data, these “invisible” migrants are in fact parts of a larger ecology, where the fates of humans and nonhumans are interlaced, prompting deep ethical questions. Such invisibility is challenged by the many artists, writers, filmmakers, and thinkers that bring the migrant question to the center stage of their work, suggesting that the only response to the dehumanization of migrants is the humanization of nonhumans caught in the same predicaments of borders and violence. The essay includes an analysis of Jason deCaires Taylor's submarine artworks and of the documentary <em>Asmat</em>, "Names," by director&nbsp;Dagmawi Yimer.</p> Serenella Iovino Pasquale Verdicchio Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 11 2 82 91 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3559 Vegetal Scale in the Anthropocene: The Dark Green https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3480 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; When exploring the problem of delineating possible “scales” useful to describe the Anthropocene’s ecological changes, I suggest plant-human relations as the basis of our models rather than solely Human impact with a capital “H” as if a stand-alone species. Instead, human beings are a species within the photosynthesis-shaped, oxygen-infused atmosphere, and countering the ongoing industrial ecocide means seeking multispecies justice. One may claim that the “vegetal” stands as the ontological antithesis of being “animal,” but that view expresses a one-dimensional disregard for the essential work and bodies of plants and their fellow photosynthesizers that produce oxygen, drive the carbon cycle, feed terrestrial life, and influence water cycles. Indeed, “animal” is an emergence from the vegetal context. But our plant stories are shifting with the anthropocenic inflection. This dark green project explores narratives, both scientific and creative, of plant-human interactions in time of planetary change; and these interactions are not always peaceful or on an easily comprehended scale. As an example, I consider the 2015 short science-fiction story from Alan Dean Foster, “That Creeping Sensation,” that portrays how plant-human relations take on frightening new forms in a climate-changed world altered by heat, carbon dioxide, and the not-always-supportive activities of plants. With all the heat and carbon dioxide, plant life explodes and produces a massive increase in oxygen. In response, insects grow enormous and specialized first-responders must battle the bugs. Foster’s texts portray scales of non-human agency larger than the human whose power encompasses, enables, and sometimes threatens human life. His “cli fi” tale of giant bugs presents human beings as inextricably enmeshed in a plant-dominated existence. To paraphrase Derrida, there is no outside the vegetal.</p> Heather Isabella Sullivan Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-20 2020-09-20 11 2 92 100 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3480 Vegan Studies as Ecofeminist Intervention https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3516 <p>On November 5, 2019, 11,000 scientists from 153 countries declared a climate emergency, and their report presents in stark terms the nature and certainty of the crisis, &nbsp;providing six paths forward, one of which focuses on agriculture: “eating mostly plant-based foods while reducing the global consumption of animal products . . . can improve human health and significantly lower GHG emissions” (Ripple et al. 4). We have been given a plan to help us mediate this crisis, but what will it take for us to act on it, or, for that matter, to discuss the “animal question” in ways that are not predicated on vitriolic fear and willful disdain of plant-based consumption? In this essay, I offer a vegan studies approach as a theoretical and lived ecofeminist intervention in a political moment characterized by environmental uncertainty, overt racism, misogyny, and anti-immigrant policies that have become conflated with the presumed threat veganism poses to an increasingly authoritarian present.</p> Laura Wright Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 11 2 101 108 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3516 Seeing Ecophobia on a Vegan Plate https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3503 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; There has been a sudden growth in the vegan industry, with meatless burgers garnering a profoundly inviting reception and even people such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and Jackie Chan supportively entering the conversation. In some ways, companies such as Beyond Meat<sup>TM</sup> and Impossible Foods<sup>TM</sup> and films such as <em>The Game Changers</em> are succeeding in doing what many political vegetarians and vegans, academics, and activists have long failed to do: to have a real effect on the animal agriculture business. Perhaps this is something to celebrate, especially since (despite the arguments, protests, and even veg-friendly businesses having steadily increased) the numbers of animals involved in the industry have consistently swollen. To rest much hope in the current vegan trends would be to fall victim to a deceptively sexist and ecophobic guiding narrative. While taking big steps toward shutting down the animal agriculture business, the great strides of the vegan industry follow a well-worn path. Putting veggie patties in the meat aisle and shunning words such as “vegetarian” and “vegan” engages in a disavowal of vegetal realities, and the fact that the meat aisle itself is so heavily gendered effectively re-genders the food itself. It may all seem harmless enough—even productive—until understood within the larger context of patriarchal “attempts,” to cite Laura Wright, “to reconceptualize veganism as an alternative untramasculine choice.” <em>The Game Changers</em> drips with such attempts, and, like the “meatless” products now enjoying such popularity, reeks of male self-delusionalism about having discovered a healthful, new diet. There is a lot more than veggies being served up with what we might call the new veganism, and there is not much chance of really effecting change unless we look at what’s really on the plate.</p> Simon Estok Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 11 2 109 117 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3503 Slow Practice as Ethical Aesthetics: The Ecocritical Strategy of Patience https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3453 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; How can cultural works from the distant past –such as the Middle Ages—teach us ethical modes of behavior for today? One form of ecopoetics emerges through <em>slow</em> practice, making the reader collaborate in the measured process of co-creating the emotional impact of an imaginative text. Drawing on rich debates about slow cinema, this essay suggests how Chaucer’s <em>The Clerk’s Tale</em>—from his grand fourteenth-century poem, <em>The Canterbury Tales</em>—evokes a slow eco-aesthetics with ethical impact. The relative slowness of walking shapes how individuals respond to their environment. In turn, a deceleration of perception affects how travel comes to be written about, as seen in the tale of Patient Griselda. Introduced by Giovanni Boccaccio and adapted by such writers as Francesco Petrarch, Geoffrey Chaucer, and Christine de Pizan, she acts dynamically through her apparent silence and notorious patience. The environmental humanities offer paradigms for us to consider the strategies of slowness and patience. This essay shows how medieval pilgrimage literature evokes a slow aesthetic which is at the same time an ecocritical strategy. Slowness results in an enduring impact and heightened sensitivity to the ecological damage for which we all are culpable. Slower somatically inculcates key aspects of environmental awareness. Pilgrimage texts from the Middle Ages teach us slow ethical aesthetics, suggesting that the medieval moment—finally and a long time coming— is now.</p> Susan Signe Morrison Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 11 2 118 127 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3453 Affect, Emotion, and Ecocriticism https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3510 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Our relationships to the environments that surround, sustain, and sometimes threaten us are fraught with emotion. And since, as neurologist Antonio Damasio has shown, cognition is directly linked to emotion, and emotion is linked to the feelings of the body, our physical environment influences not only how we feel, but also what we think. Importantly, this also holds true when we interact with artistic representations of such environments, as we find them in literature, film, and other media. For this reason, our emotions can take a rollercoaster ride when we read a book or watch a film. Typically, such emotions are evoked as we empathize with characters while also inhabiting emotionally the storyworlds that surround these characters and interact with them in various ways. Given this crucial interlinkage between environment, emotion, and environmental narrative in the widest sense, it is unsurprising that, from its inception, the study of literature and the environment has been interested in how ecologically oriented texts represent and provoke emotions in relation to the natural world. More recently, ecocritical scholars have started to develop a more sustained theoretical approach to exploring how affect and emotion function in environmentally oriented texts of all kinds. In this article, I will attempt to trace this development over time, briefly highlighting some of the most important texts and theoretical concepts in affective ecocriticism</p> Alexa Weik von Mossner Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-10 2020-10-10 11 2 128 136 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3510 Transcorporeality: An interview with Stacy Alaimo https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3478 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The interview was mainly conducted at Tallinn University in January 2019, when Stacy Alaimo visited the Graduate Winter School “The Humanities and Posthumanities: New Ways of Being Human” and gave a plenary lecture titled “Onto-epistemologies for the Anthropocene, or Who will be the Subject of the Posthumanities?”, and completed in spring 2020, to address immediately unfolding issues.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Alaimo is an internationally recognized scholar of American literature, ecocultural theory, environmental humanities, science studies, gender theory, and new materialism. She is the author of three monographs on environmental theory and ecocultural studies: <em>Undomesticated Ground: Recasting Nature as Feminist Space</em>&nbsp;(Cornell University Press, 2000);&nbsp;<em>Bodily Natures: Science, Environment, and the Material Self</em>&nbsp;(Indiana University Press, 2010); and&nbsp;<em>Exposed: Environmental Politics and Pleasures in Posthuman</em>&nbsp;<em>Times</em>&nbsp;(University of Minnesota Press, 2016). &nbsp;Alaimo has edited and co-edited essay collections, including Science Studies and the Blue Humanities (essay cluster for SLSA journal,&nbsp;<em>Configurations.&nbsp;</em>Fall 2019);<em> Matter (</em>MacMillan Interdisciplinary Handbooks, 2017); <em>Material Feminisms (with Susan Hekman, Indiana </em>University Press, 2008), and is the author of a significant number of essays and book chapters. She co-edits a book series, “Elements,” at Duke University Press. Her current work focuses on oceans and marine life: she is currently finishing a book tentatively titled, <em>Composing Blue Ecologies: Science, Aesthetics, and the Creatures of the Abyss.</em> Alaimo served as co-President of ASLE (The Association for the Study of Literature and Environment), and created and directed the cross-disciplinary minor in Environmental and Sustainability Studies at the University of Texas and Arlington. She joined the faculty of the University of Oregon in 2019, where she is Professor of English and core faculty member in environmental studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The interview addresses the evolution of her views as represented in <em>Undomesticated Ground </em>(2000), as well as the connections and tensions of feminism and environmentalism; it moves on to <em>Bodily Natures </em>(2010), in which she develops her seminal concept of transcorporeality; and looks into her ongoing interest in the deep sea and its representation in culture, the focus of her current book project, <em>Composing Blue Ecologies. &nbsp;</em></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The interview discusses the importance of transcorporeality in the Anthropocene, as an alternative to “self-aggrandizing” accounts <em>“</em>in which some transhistorical ‘Man’ acts upon the inert, external matter of the world.” Examples from both science and culture illustrate the concepts discussed, reaching out into important political concerns of the day, such as climate refugees, sustainability as a labour and power issue, divisive dichotomies and understanding difference. The theme of water as an example of transcorporeality and a burning ecological issue is taken up, touching upon the current vulnerability of the Baltic Sea and elaborating on the material and ideas developed in the new book that Stacy Alaimo is working on. The final part of the interview addresses the environmental implications of the COVID-19 crisis.</p> Julia Kuznetski (née Tofantšuk) Stacy Alaimo Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-20 2020-09-20 11 2 137 146 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3478 Environmental Risk Fiction and Ecocriticism https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3534 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Ecocriticism has been at the forefront of introducing risk theory and risk research to literary and cultural studies. The essay surveys this more recent trend in ecocritical scholarship, which began with the new millennium and has focused on the participation of fictional texts in various environmental risk discourses. The study of risk fiction draws our attention to cultural moments of uncertainty, threat, and instability, to risk scenarios both local and planetary—not least the risk scenarios of the Anthropocene in which species consciousness and ‘planetariness’ have become central issues. The essay reviews how key publications have shed light on the cultural and literary historical relevance of environmental risk and on various issues that are central to ecocriticism. It points out how they have sharpened our sense of both the spatial and temporal dimensions of environmental risk and environmental crisis, introduced new categories of ecocritical analysis, contributed to clarifying some of the field’s major conceptual premises, and added a new approach to genre discussions, in particular relating to fiction engaging with global anthropogenic climate change.</p> Sylvia Mayer Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 11 2 147 153 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3534 "Cultivating an Ability to Imagine": Ryan Walsh's Reckonings and the Poetics of Toxicity https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3467 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For nearly two decades since Lawrence Buell defined and anatomized “toxic discourse” in <em>Writing for an Endangered World: Literature, Culture, and Environment in the U.S. and Beyond </em>(2001), the storying of toxic experience has received fruitful theoretical and literary attention. Throughout the world, citizens have come to terms with the reality that we live on a poisoned planet and the poisons in our environment are also in ourselves—the poisons our industrial activities spew into the air, water, soil, and food are almost imperceptibly (“slowly,” as Rob Nixon would put it) absorbed into all of our bodies (through the process Stacy Alaimo described as “transcorporeality”). Biologist and literary activist Sandra Steingraber stated in <em>Living Downstream: A Scientist’s Personal Investigation of Cancer and the Environment</em> (1997) that we must “cultivat[e] an ability to imagine” in order to appreciate the meaning of our post-industrial lives. In this essay, I focus on Ryan Walsh’s new collection of poetry, <em>Reckonings</em> (2019), and on Pramod K. Nayar’s recent ecocritical study, <em>Bhopal’s Ecological Gothic: Disaster, Precarity, and the Biopolitical Uncanny</em> (2017), in order to propose and define an evolving “poetics of toxicity.”</p> Scott Slovic Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 11 2 154 161 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3467 Ecocriticism, Biopolitics, and Ecological Immunity https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3542 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Ecocritics tend to think of environmentalism as a form of resistance against the anthropocentrism of Western modernity. Such a view stands in contrast to biopolitical theory, which sees modernity in terms of a naturalization of the human and a generalized effort to increase the productivity of life that cuts across species lines. Building on the work of Roberto Esposito, this process can be described as a radicalized form of ecological immunization whereby humans and their domesticates are protected from the risks that attend membership in ecological communities, resulting in an “unnatural growth of the natural” (H. Arendt). The self-destructive strategies of immunization which characterize biopolitical modernity are based on a conception of life in terms of competition over scarce resources, inevitably leading to Malthusian crises. Lynn Margulis’ understanding of evolution as symbiogenesis offers an alternative on which an affirmative biopolitics balancing the demands of immunity and community can build.</p> Hannes Bergthaller Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 11 2 162 168 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3542 Multispecies Justice in the Wetlands https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3566 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This essay discusses the rise of "justice" as a central concept around which environmental thought and debates have been organized over the last thirty years, and briefly places the notions of environmental justice and multispecies justice into the more general context of theories of justice since John Rawls. It uses the case of the Ballona Wetlands Ecological Reserve in Los Angeles, whose future is hotly contested between different environmentalist groups, as a case study to illustrate the complex trade-offs that environmental decision-making currently confronts, and to suggest in what ways the invocation of multispecies justice changes the participants in the community of justice and the way in which their claims on humans' moral consideration should be weighed.</p> Ursula K. Heise Jon Christensen Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-20 2020-09-20 11 2 169 177 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3566 Traces “We” Leave Behind: Toward the Feminist Practice of Stig(e)merging https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3487 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As Serpil Oppermann has stated “the Anthropocene has come to signify a discourse embedded in the <em>global scale</em> vision of the sedimentary traces of the anthropos” (“The Scale of the Anthropocene” 2). In the following article we wish to revisit the practice of leaving traces through thinking with wastes as traces human beings leave behind and lands of waste that co-compose today’s naturecultures (Haraway, <em>Companion Species</em>). Situating our research in the context of Polish ecocriticism, we would like to think-with an art project by Diana Lelonek entitled <em>Center for the Living Things</em>, in which the artist gathers and exhibits waste that “have become the natural environment for many living organisms” (Lelonek). Following the ambivalent and chaotic traces of wastes, we offer a concept of stig(e)merging to rethink the “unruly edges” (Tsing 141-54) of capitalist wastelands. We fathom stig(e)merging as a feminist methodology that relies on reacting to changes and alterations in the milieu, as well as the actions and needs of others, and on participating in the common work of reshaping the un/wasted world together with them.</p> Monika Rogowska-Stangret Olga Cielemęcka Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 11 2 178 186 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3487 Into the Fray: A Call for Policy-engaged and Actionable Environmental Humanities https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3547 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As European countries strive to meet their targets in support of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals adopted by UN member states in 2015, the importance of integrating all knowledge communities in coordinated responses to sustainability challenges becomes an increasing priority. The creativity and depth of knowledge within philosophical, cultural, aesthetic and historical disciplines of the humanities has been underutilized in coordinated international assessment initiatives that aim to inform policy and facilitate solutions of sustainability governance. The Environmental Humanities (EH) is a field of growing significance internationally. While it can no longer be called an emerging field, EH still holds only the promise of bringing knowledge of social and cultural systems to coordinated international efforts to address the human dimensions of global environmental change. The significant knowledge and expertise on the human dimensions of environmental change available within the EH field should be regarded as an indispensable resource to policymakers and to those on the ground who work to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. This essay makes a case for actionable, policy-engaged environmental humanities, an ambition that should certainly extend to the domain of the humanities more generally.</p> Steven Hartman Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 11 2 187 199 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3547 Bettering Our Stories about Stories about Nature https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3497 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Both environmental historians and ecocriticism scholars are in the business of simultaneously analysing the stories we tell about the human-nature relationship and creating those stories. Using the case of Kiki, an Aldabra giant tortoise on display in the Muséum national d’Historie naturelle in Paris, I present three potential text types in museum displays which lend themselves to new ecocritical readings: museum labels, biographical displays, and material remains. Ecocritical approaches to the genres of scientific texts and animal biographies and the developing field of material ecocriticism prove useful for making sense of the complex narratives of environmental history. Reaching out to ecocriticism approaches can make the stories I tell as an environmental historian better.</p> Dolly Jørgensen Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-10 2020-10-10 11 2 200 207 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3497 Ecocriticism and "Thinking with Writing": An Interview with Tim Ingold https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3666 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Over the course of an influential career spanning several decades, Tim Ingold, Professor Emeritus at the University of Aberdeen, has established himself as a preeminent voice in the field of Social Anthropology. Author of studies including <em>The</em> <em>Perception of the Environment</em> (2000), <em>Being Alive</em> (2011) and <em>The Life of Lines</em> (2015), this interview was inspired by the potential of his wide-ranging scholarship to unearth some fascinating avenues for research in literary studies. The breadth of his writing on habitation, perception and skilled practice, suggests myriad applications for his thinking beyond the purely anthropological, and particularly for bridging the concerns of literary and environmental studies. The philosophical depth of his work, apparent in his analyses of processes of growth and formation in both biological and socio-cultural domains (indeed questioning the supposed divisions between these fields), proves that his scholarship provides a refreshing counter-narrative to many prevailing schools of thought in current literary theory, especially to much of the discourse of New Materialism and Speculative Realism. In addition, this interview contains his views regarding certain emerging issues in literary studies, such as the material practices of reading, and the ascendency of the computer screen over the printed book, areas where his anthropological perspective is both stimulating and revealing. As a renowned scholar who has recently surveyed the changes in the academy and in disciplinary relationships throughout his long career, his observations provide valuable insights into the capability of the arts to guide us into a wider, more interconnected world. Crucially, his responses also speak to the world of academia, and how we can foster a practical awareness of ecological issues within the often-rarefied spheres of academic research and practice.</p> Antonia Spencer Tim Ingold Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 11 2 208 215 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3666 Du Bois and Dark, Wild Hope in an Age of Environmental and Political Catastrophe https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3500 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The question of hope and its relation to despair looms all around us—in private conversation and in public discourse. In Environmental Humanities and the Literary Arts, one finds a pervasive pessimism as these fields grapple with such catastrophes as climate change and white nationalism. In this article, I investigate and critically appropriate W. E. B. Du Bois’ notion of a dark, wild hope, suggesting that this particular form of hope is needful as we confront various environmental and political crises. I begin the article by exploring a form of hope that sustained Du Bois in the face of persistent racism—including environmental racism. Next, I argue that Du Bois’ dark, wild hope can help us think about forms of hope appropriate for our own time. Du Bois’ response to the catastrophes that he faced is instructive as we attempt to respond robustly to our current catastrophes. Resilience and vulnerability, resistance and uncertainty, transformation and constraints—these aspects of the human drama informed Du Bois’ dark, wild hope. And this hope—not sunny and Pollyannaish, but rather rooted in suffering, trial, and grief—is a powerful resource for us today.</p> Mark S. Cladis Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 11 2 216 223 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3500 New Ecocriticisms: Narrative, Affective, Empirical and Mindful https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3520 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; What seem like “new” developments in Ecocriticism have actually been nascent, articulated in conversations and blogs, soon emerging in presentations and print over the past five or more years. Responding to climate change numbing, ecocritics have explored the potential “arithmetic of compassion” (Slovic &amp; Slovic 2015) and the “caring exhaustion” that arises when the numbers of those suffering—humans, animals, ecosystems—becomes too high to encompass. Human responses to the increasingly frightening scenarios of climate change futures have been termed “eco-anxiety” and “eco-grief” (Hutner 2015; Ray 2019). New developments in ecocriticism arise through the nexus of econarratology, affective ecocriticism, empirical ecocriticism, and mindful /Zen ecocriticism. I discuss this continuing trajectory in ecocriticism, developing from econarrative through ecoaffect (approaches that describe readers’ responses to climate change narratives) and on to empirical and mindful / Zen ecocriticisms (approaches that seek to offer strategies for responding to climate change narratives through affect, activism, and contemplative approaches, and for evaluating the efficacy of those strategies).</p> </div> </div> </div> Greta Gaard Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 11 2 224 233 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3520 Editorial: Creative Writing and Arts https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4019 <p>Editorial: Creative Writing and Arts.</p> Damiano Benvegnù Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 11 2 234 237 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.4019 The Dog Walkers https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3518 <p>Images from series 'The Dog Walkers'.</p> John Darwell Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 11 2 237 241 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3518 The Swimmer https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3436 <p>My works are a depiction of a spiritual relationship with the natural environment. I am drawn to the energy, light, color, materiality, surfaces, and compilations of complex forms found in the spaces where man-made structures collide with natural areas. Childhood memories of Michigan wetlands and forests play into my personal creative language, but I also respond to the mixed urban and natural landscape of Berlin. Piles of bones, discarded building materials, and even the energy of strong weather can appear in my works. I aim to capture a relationship with nature that is charged with the playful flux and flow of creation and destruction. I am an intuitive artist who freely explores the painting process.</p> <p>In this recent large-scale work, “Swimmer” (2019), an abstracted skeletal figure in the upper left of the canvas is caught in a tidal wave of bright blue water and debris. The architectonic aspects of this painting bring to mind the harder-edged shapes of building materials; these forms, too, are being shattered by the water. The great shifting forces of nature can be epic and overwhelming; this “swimmer” becomes a symbol of fragility in the environment.</p> <p>The Swimmer (2019)</p> <p>180 x 150 cm (71 x 57 in.)</p> <p>Acrylic, pigment, and mixed media on linen</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Photo: Eric Tschernow</p> Michael Markwick Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 11 2 242 242 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3436 Plants: Through the Plastic Bag https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3428 <p>Photograph.</p> Francoise Lucas Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 11 2 243 243 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3428 Dry Cycle https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3996 <p>CICLO SECO, 2018. Montejo de la Sierra, Madrid. Wool and cracks.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lucía Loren Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 11 2 244 246 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3996 Evolution of Fish https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3995 <p>Images.</p> Tamiko Thiel Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 11 2 247 250 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3995 Metabolic Machines https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3448 <p style="margin-bottom: 0.42cm; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="color: #333333;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">Sculptures.</span></span></span></span></span></p> Thomas Feuerstein Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 11 2 250 252 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3448 Introduction https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3975 <p>Introduction to book review section.</p> Astrid Bracke Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 11 2 253 253 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3975 Ecocriticism in German Literary Studies https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3528 <p>Review essay.</p> Anna-Marie Humbert Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 11 2 254 260 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3528 From Ecocriticism to Environmental Humanities: A Brief Overview of Publications in Spain https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3543 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This review essay focuses on an overview of relevant publications regarding ecocriticism, and its corollary, the environmental humanities, with a specific focus on Spain, through three main publications: <em>Ecocríticas. </em><em>Literatura y medio ambiente</em> (2010); <em>Visiones ecocríticas del mar en la literatura</em> (2016); and <em>Humanidades ambientales: pensamiento, arte y relatos para el siglo de la gran prueba</em> (2018). This essay also mentions other relevant volumes and monographic issues published in Spain in the last ten years. The purpose of this essay is to give the reader a general view of the work done within the fields of ecocriticism and the environmental humanities in Spain in the last decade.</p> Beatriz Lindo Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 11 2 261 266 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3543 The New Nature Writing https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3549 <p>Review essay.</p> Jos Smith Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-16 2020-09-16 11 2 267 272 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3549 Petrocultures https://ecozona.eu/article/view/3535 <p>Review essay.</p> Christa Grewe-Volpp Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-09-16 2020-09-16 11 2 273 277 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.3535 Credits 11.2 https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4048 <p>Credits 11.2</p> Irene Sanz Alonso Copyright (c) 2020 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment 2020-10-18 2020-10-18 11 2 278 282 10.37536/ECOZONA.2020.11.2.4048