Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/ <p><em>Ecozon@</em> is a journal devoted to ecocriticism. Its principal aim is to further the study, knowledge and public awareness of the connections and relationship between literature, culture and the environment. One of its primary characteristics is that of reflecting the cultural, linguistic and natural richness and diversity of the European continent. The journal, founded in 2010 by Dr. Carmen Flys Junquera and the GIECO research group, is published by the University of Alcalá, Spain and sponsored by EASLCE. </p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br>a) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal (CC BY-NC for articles and CC BY-NC-ND for creative work, unless author requests otherwise.</p> <p>b) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>c) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> ecozona.secretary@gmail.com (Ecozon@ Secretary) Ecozona.assist.ed.tech@gmail.com (Ecozon@ Technical Support) Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Postcolonial Nonhuman. An Introduction https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4913 <p>Introduction to the guest edited section.</p> Erin James, Cajetan Iheka, Juan Ignacio Oliva Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4913 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Subalterns in the House: Sites for a Postcolonial Multispecies Ethnography https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4736 <p>Multispecies ethnography attempts to bring to the forefront those animal lives previously overlooked by charting our shared social worlds and showing how humans and nonhumans are mutually affected by social, cultural and political processes. The resistance in postcolonial critique to focus on nonhuman animal subjects stems from making the colonised and the animal comparable and the fear that such an association may dehumanise the human subject. This paper suggests that multispecies ethnography influenced by Latour, Haraway, Tsing and others is a useful tool for analysing postcolonial contexts because of its emphasis on relation, mutuality and alliances. However, I suggest that this inheritance is rebuilt as a <em>postcolonial</em> multispecies ethnography because of its attention to five aspects that is common to both fields: subaltern, local, collective, representation and decolonisation. By a careful reading of these key concepts with examples from contemporary literature, I show how postcolonial multispecies ethnographies engage with hybrid identities that are culturally produced and historically situated and how they register the nonhuman animals as narrativisable subjects who are nevertheless “irretrievably heterogeneous” (284). In this ethnographic emergence, postcolonial multispecies ethnography re-dignifies the nonhuman animal subject which opens up the radical possibility of realizing their embodied perspectives.</p> Susan Haris Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4736 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Postcolonial Nonhuman Blurring (B)orders in Migrant Ecologies: A Postanthropocentric Reading of Amitav Ghosh’s "Gun Island" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4671 <p>Amitav Ghosh’s novel <em>Gun Island </em>(2019) explores the intersection of the nonhuman with 21<sup>st</sup> century issues pertaining to racial and ecological injustice, ethnic cleansing, environmental catastrophe and migrant ecologies by way of allegorising the myth of Manasa Devi (goddess of snakes and other venomous creatures). A postcolonial ecocritical lens helps analyse how the novelist presents nonhuman actors to contest Western anthropocentric conceptualisations of human subjectivity shaped by historical forces of modernity. By positing a postanthropocentric way of reading the world in order to shape new human subjectivities which do not efface human-nonhuman entanglements, my paper studies how Ghosh recognises agentic capacities and storied matter of the postcolonial nonhuman subject matter by identifying the novel’s subversive negotiations through the tropes of language, embodiment, genre, and everyday environmentalism. I analyse how the contextualisation of the postcolonial nonhuman not only critiques human exceptionalism but destabilises the constructedness of borders in terms of an immaterial myth projecting an otherworldly possibility, trans-corporeality positing inescapable interconnectedness between humans and all living and non-living matter, and everyday environmentalism broadening the definition of environment to contest nature-culture dualism. I also argue that this ecofiction’s allegorisation of Manasa Devi’s myth through the unseen boundaries that she seeks to retain problematise a simplistic understanding of borders as limiting. My paper thus analyses how this reconceptualisation through the postcolonial nonhuman blurs borders and their ordering of the world and posits, instead, a relational living that dismantles constructedness of hierarchies while paying heed to (b)orders for ecological sustainable living.</p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"> </span></p> Ashwarya Samkaria Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4671 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Zt.Zzt in the Anthropocene: Arthropod Flesh, Solar-Strip Skin and Anthropocene Time in "The Old Drift" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4709 <p>While Namwali Serpell’s novel <em>The Old Drift</em> can be read as a fictional account of colonial and post-colonial Zambian history, this article focuses on the text’s exploration of Anthropocene time—geobiochemical and planetary temporal scales that predate human histories, while also gesturing towards futures where <em>Homo sapiens</em> may be absent. This article focuses on deep temporality in the novel via the use of mosquito and Moskeetoze (mosquito-like microdrones) narrators. While mosquitoes facilitate encounters with the deep past and of entangled human-nonhuman histories, the Moskeetozes enable representations of the vicissitudes of the “Anthrobscene” (Parrikka) and the creative potentialities of improvised life that emerge in hazardscapes in the Global South. Additionally, <em>The Old Drift</em> gestures towards a speculative planetary future where mosquitoes and Moskeetozes integrate to evolve new forms of swarm intelligence and forms of life. </p> Amit Baishya Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4709 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Bodies on the Border: Rematerializing and Decolonizing Ecologies of Mobility in the Mexico-US Borderlands https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4701 <p>Current human migrations and nonhuman extinctions on massive scales compel us to more carefully apply interspecies concepts of mobility to understanding the roles played by geopolitical borders, as well as the various, ongoing forms of colonialism that have produced and continue to perpetuate these borders. This essay applies bioregional, material, decolonial, and borderlands ecocriticism to historicize prevention through deterrence enforcement measures in the Mexico-US border region, and discusses several significant entanglements of interspecies actors in migratory contexts, exploring a range of ways that nonhuman nature has been and continues to be deployed materially against migrants. In historicizing US enforcement tactics, the essay tracks the distribution of human agency from settler colonial, ethnonationalist, and neoliberal US policy makers, to armed paramilitary human bodies, then into structures of the built environment, and, finally, to the ways that agency is further diffused across complex webs of multiple kinds of human and nonhuman actors—plants, animals, landforms, watercourses, climate and weather conditions, and so on. While in some instances, nonhuman animals are deployed against migrant and other indigenous and mestizo people, in other multispecies entanglements, animals participate in the revelation and denunciation of state sponsored violence, leading to larger questions of the status of other nonhuman animals in the borderlands. The essay’s primary focus is on illustrating the practical untenability of, and the severe harm done in, continuing to regard the borderlands from settler colonialist or human exceptionalist positionalities.</p> English Brooks Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4701 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Border gnoseology: Akwaeke Emezi and the Decolonial Other-than-Human https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4669 <p>The underlying assumption when speaking about the postcolonial nonhuman is that the other-than-human refers to what could be called, broadly speaking, the “natural world,” as opposed to “the human-as-Man,” but still usually understood in (Western) secular terms. Nevertheless, from the perspective of African onto-epistemologies, the nonhuman can also refer to the spiritual world, or to the diverse assemblages between the “natural,” the human and the sacred.&nbsp;<em>Freshwater</em>&nbsp;(2018) and <em>Dear Senthuran. A Black Spirit Memoir</em> (2021), by Akwaeke Emezi, open up a space of “border gnoseology,” where contemporary Anglo-American discourses on transsexuality intersect with African ontologies and epistemologies, specifically with the well-known figure of the <em>ogbanje</em> and the sacred python as an avatar of Ala, the Earth goddess in Igbo culture, to produce a radically subversive embodied subjectivity. The ideas of movement, transing, tranimalcy and (transatlantic) crossing conspire to dismantle conventional Eurocentric humanist views on selfhood and identity. Reading Emeke on their own terms also requires revisiting alternative notions of temporality beyond secular, cisheteronormative, modern time, as well as an understanding that the sacred and the spiritual are indeed essential to the worldview and the processes of subjectivation of millions of people across the globe.</p> Marta Sofía López Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4669 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Narrating the Anthropocene: Magical Realism as Mimesis https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4678 <p>In this paper, I will argue that the literary mode of magical realism proves particularly apt to reflect the indeterminacies, instabilities, and ambiguities that mark the current climatic situation, particularly in the context of oil extraction in West Africa, emphasizing the unexpected and often invisible character of ecological problems and granting a particular agency to natural elements as they respond to harmful human activities. Based on a reading of Bessora's <em>Petroleum</em> (2004) and Helon Habila's <em>Oil on Water</em> (2010), which are set in the context of oil extraction in Gabon and the Niger Delta respectively, I will show that magical realism, by its transgression of traditional antinomies and various ontological levels, and by its presentation of an inherently hybrid universe, allows us to see the invisible and complex interrelationships of the different factors at the origin of the environmental crisis, such as capitalism and the global trade in natural resources. Moreover, this literary mode allows for the attribution of direct agency to the natural world as well as to oil, without intermediary, through the use of personification and active verbs. The result is an essentially hybrid universe, which evokes the more-than-human rhythms of landscapes and elements, where the agentivity of an environment that is both artificial and natural not only adds to the confusion of the characters but also visualizes the harm done to nature.</p> Sara Buekens Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4678 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Whole Issue 13.2 https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4927 <p>Whole issue 13.2</p> Gala Arias Rubio Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4927 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Editorial 13.2 https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4918 <p>Editorial 13.2</p> Heather Sullivan Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4918 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Editorial https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4908 <p>Editorial.</p> Elizabeth Tavella Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4908 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 "Serpent River Book" (Excerpts) https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4898 <p>Installation and extracts.</p> Carolina Caycedo Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4898 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 "Teardrops on the Weser" (Excerpts) https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4893 <p>Poetry.</p> Amatoritsero Ede Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4893 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Questions https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4704 <p>This is a nature poem set against the backdrop of a couple sitting near a riverside.&nbsp;</p> R. Sreejith Varma Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4704 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Raven https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4895 <p>Poem.</p> Uchechukwu Umezurike Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4895 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Three Poems about Whales and Whaling https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4291 <p>Three poems about whales and whaling.</p> Manuela Palacios Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4291 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Living as Water https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4420 <p>Creative writing.</p> Rosanne van der Voet Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4420 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Credits 13.2 https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4924 <p>Credits 13.2</p> Irene Sanz Alonso Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4924 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Review Essay: Developing Empathy Towards Other-than-human Animals through Cultural and Literary Representations https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4399 <p>This review essay focuses on the animal question and the role that cultural and literary representations of other-than-human animals may have in raising awareness of the severity of the situation and eventually developing a more egalitarian and empathetic society. This paper reviews two different approaches to the issue: an innovative empirical study of the impact that narratives may have on our attitudes towards other species conducted in Poland by Wojciech Malecki, Piotr Sorokowski, Boguslaw Pawlowski, and Marcin Cienski and presented in <em>Human Minds and Animal Stories: How Narratives Make Us Care About Other Species</em>; and a qualitative interdisciplinary research on the animal question in Spain in <em>Spanish Thinking About Animals</em> edited by Margarita Carretero-González.</p> Katsiaryna Nahornava Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4399 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Book Review of "The Climate of History in a Planetary Age" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4718 <p>Book review of <em>The Climate of History in a Planetary Age.</em></p> Michael O'Krent Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4718 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Book Review of "Fortellinger om bærekraftig utvikling. Perspektiver for norskfaget" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4810 <p>Book review of <em>Fortellinger om bærekraftig utvikling. Perspektiver for norskfaget.</em></p> Georgiana Bozintan Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4810 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Book Review of "Hope Matters: Why Changing the Way we Think is Critical to Solving the Environmental Crisis" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4784 <p>Book review of <em>Hope Matters: Why Changing the Way we Think is Critical to Solving the Environmental Crisis.</em></p> Uwe Küchler Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4784 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Book Review of "Narrating the Mesh: Form and Story in the Anthropocene" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4856 <p>Book review of <em>Narrating the Mesh: Form and Story in the Anthropocene</em>.</p> Sean Matharoo Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4856 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 From the Serengeti to the Bavarian Forest, and back again: Bernhard Grzimek, Celebrity Conservation, and the Transnational Politics of National Parks https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4525 <p>This short piece focuses on the work of the German “celebrity conservationist,” Bernhard Grzimek, situating it in the context of historical and contemporary debates about the political and ecological importance of national parks. Grzimek’s role in the creation of Bavarian Forest National Park may not be as well-known as his public ministrations on behalf of the wild animals of the Serengeti, but in several ways his work in and for these two national parks, engaging with the fraught politics of the period, was intertwined. The essay looks at some of these overlaps, using them to make the case for national parks as complex geopolitical formations in which human and animal interests alternately collide and converge. The essay also makes the case for national parks as multi-scalar entities that need to be understood – politically and ecologically – in both local and global, both national and transnational terms. Finally, the essay cites the multiple roles of Grzimek to re-examine the ambivalent role of the celebrity conservationist as a media spokesperson and publicity-conscious advocate for the world’s wildlife.</p> Graham Huggan Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4525 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Forest for the Trees: The umwelt, the holobiont, and metaphor in Richard Powers’ "The Overstory" and Shakespeare’s "Macbeth" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4398 <p>This work of ecocritical narrative scholarship weaves analysis of Richard Powers’ <em>The Overstory</em>—specifically its invocation of Shakespeare’s <em>Macbeth</em>—with a discussion of biosemiotics, metaphor, emergence, and the narrative of my own family’s pandemic-inspired move to a national park in the mountains outside of Madrid. The essay investigates the juncture between the human holobiont—the space in and around the human body that constitutes shared habitats for symbionts—, the holobiont of pine trees, and the human <em>umwelt.</em> In other words, this piece focuses on the spaces in which bacteria, fungi, and the biological origins of semiosis and language converge. I seek to present a clearer perception of the natural world rooted in narratives of emergence that foreground connections—literary, natural, metaphorical, and material. The form of this paper—the latticework that emerges from the interweaving of literary analysis, biosemiotic and ecocritical theory, and personal narrative—is also part of its content. Through its focus on the intersection of narrative, biosemiotics and material ecocriticism, this work calls into question the very nature of literary metaphor and investigates how the material of literature literally ties us to our environment. Through an exploration of the phenomenological parallel between textual motion in literature, viral motion in nature, and the movement of people through natural and social environments, this document challenges the very idea of metaphor, proposing in its stead an insistence that story, consciousness, and organisms converge in the same material space creating patterns of resemblance that speak to the kinship of all biological systems.</p> Timothy Ryan Day Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4398 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Mycorrhizal Metaphors: The Buried Life of Language and Elizabeth-Jane Burnett’s "The Grassling" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4652 <div> <p class="Body">Fungi generate and demand subterranean thinking: thinking beyond the visible, thinking that makes connections between things previously supposed to be separate or individual. This article traces an extended subterranean metaphor that likens human language to fungal networks, showing how <em>thinking fungally</em> can transform how we conceive of the strange, underground life of language and our entanglements in it. The article opens with a brief exploration of the relevant mycological science and the ways in which “symbiotic” metaphors shape and transform human thinking. I then offer a close reading of Elizabeth-Jane Burnett’s beautiful reflection on the relations between memory, language and landscape, <em>The Grassling: A Geological Memoir </em>(2019). I show how Burnett is attuned to what I call “the buried life of language”: <span lang="EN-US">its subterranean or invisible connectivities, its undoing of notions of individuality and centrality, and its dispersed and incalculable mode of co-creation that troubles assumptions about human agency. I argue that the etymological and lyrical mode of </span><em>The Grassling</em> invites us to recognise what lies below the surface of land, language and consciousness, and to thereby unravel some of our restrictive anthropocentrisms.</p> </div> Jemma Deer Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4652 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Francesco Aloe’s Climate Fiction: Ruins, Bodies and Memories from the Future in "L’ultima bambina d’Europa" https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4710 <p><em>L’ultima bambina d’Europa </em>(<em>The Last Girl of Europe</em>), written by Francesco Aloe, is a captivating example of Italian cli-fi. Inspired by Pulitzer-prizewinning American novel <em>The Road</em> by Cormac McCarthy, <em>L’ultima bambina d’Europa</em> narrates the story of a young Italian family traveling southbound in an exhausting voyage toward Africa; presumably, there the sun is still visible, the wind is softly blowing, and water and food supplies have not run out, at least, not yet. In this article, I will analyze some of the main cli-fi <em>topoi </em>and I will connect them to the narrative and rhetorical construction employed by the author. Specifically, I will focus on the effect of estrangement, which will encourage readers to embrace a less anthropocentric gaze. Through the perspective of the main protagonists - mother, father and their daughter Sofia - readers will become aware of the gluttonous nature of capitalism that functions only for a few. In their voyage, these three characters traverse a barren and devastated landscape void of temporal and spatial references. However, in this unspecified gloomy future scenario, readers will recognize the ruins of our current society and of our petroculture, heavily influenced by the American model of consumerism. Sofia’s parents, who seem to suffer from “petro-melancholia” (LeMenager, <em>Living Oil</em> 102), recollect nostalgically the petrochemical culture in which they grew up. This is in stark contrast with Sofia’s perspective; she has no recollection of a capitalist society. Finally, this analysis will underline Aloe’s prowess in situating death among the living, the place where it rightfully belongs.</p> Anna Chiafele Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4710 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200 San, the First More Than Human Princess https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4412 <p>San is the main character of the 1997 epic fantasy film <em>Princess Mononoke</em> written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki and animated by Studio Ghibli. The intellectualized interpretation of a paradigmatic and polyhedral fictional character like San, and her qualification as post-humanist, allows us to introduce a series of tropes (activism, ecology, performativity and network) that are the result of situations translated into a gender sense. San is in this way understood as an embodied reality: she is a post-humanist <em>figuration </em>of an ambitious theoretical assemblage that incorporates the approaches and practices of many authors who feed each of the aspects that define this activist, ecofeminist and more than human princess, in a narrative that is definitely far from the canons of humanism and its dual imaginary. From a gender perspective, this article uses the practice of storytelling as a strategy to share situated knowledge of reality. It raises the need to create fictional stories that feed on careful thinking to give access to science to an important community of receivers. Assuming that the suppression of what is habitual can be a powerful way to knowledge, it shows a piece of animation as a study case, where the animated graphic development gives agency to all kinds of elements that inhabit conflictive territories as an architectural field of human and non-human experiences. By means of a reading of <em>Princess Mononoke</em> from post-humanist discourses that perceive life within care networks and outside the limits of human otherness, this article shows how from narrative practices it is possible to talk about activism against capitalism, extractivism, colonialism and necropolitics through a body in the midst of a process of industrialization, in the generalization of wage labor and in the expansion of hetero-patriarchal violence.</p> Nerea González Calvo, Atxu Amann Alcocer Copyright (c) 2022 Ecozon@: European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment https://ecozona.eu/article/view/4412 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0200